Freshwater and saltwater in the world
We will always have a lot of saltwater in our world, there is at the moment NO risk of that running out. But our fresh water, the drinking water of the world, is rapidly decreasing. Why is that? Well there are several factors but the most alarming of them all is that our countries have pumped up fresh water from underground cavities for decades and now the fresh water which we had in store is running out. This is the main source of our own fresh water which we are now losing since it cannot be replaced until 6000 years later, its unsustainable use of water.
But there are unfortunetly more reasons for us losing our precious fresh water, that we mostly use for agricultural reasons (70%). Since the world is constantly being more and more populated the demand for fresh water is rising.
Energyproduction is the second largest comsumer of our fresh water resources after agriculture. Sadly, the use of fresh water in this area will double in the 25 years being used by International Energy Agency projects.
Next are doughts in the world causing our fresh water to disappear. The droughts are increasing as the global temperature is rising. This is effecting specific regions like the region of California in the USA which has depleted the Sacramento and the San Joaquin river basins by an estimated 11 trillion gallons below normal seasonal levels.
Leaky pipes made by humans lose huge amounts of water on the way to homes in both modern and developing countries. It is estimated that in the United States 2.1 trillion gallons of treated water is lost each year from leaks. In Mexico city, aging pipes are losing 1,000 liters of water per second.
Finally A UN and Pacific Institute report estimates that 2 billion tons of human, animal, and industrial waste are carelessly dumped untreated into freshwater bodies each year.
Our drinking water should have a PH-level between 6.5 and 8.5. Acidic water has a PH-level that is lower than 6.5 and high PH-levels could indicate chemical or heavy metal pollution. If your drikning water is acidic you should NOT drink it.
Different variants of water
Tap water typically about 7.5
Distilled reverse osmosis water 5 to 7
Common bottled waters 6.5 to 7.5
Bottled waters labeled as alkaline 8 to 9
Ocean water about 8
Acid rain 5 to 5.5
Alkaline water has become the most popular water to drink. It also has positive health effects like your body not growing old so fast and it can block cancer. But really there has been no scientific evidence of this thus far. Some studies show that alkaline water can help with medical conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes and high cholesterol.
Desalination - turing saltwater into fresh water
The need for more fresh water is growing and today there are methods we can use to create fresh water by desalinating salt water. The process can work in a number of ways. One way is to use a floating solar still which is an inflatable little vessel about a meter in diameter which inside creates evaporation and condensation. This separetes the salt from the water and its becomes drinkable.
Another large scale desalination is to use "reversed osmosis" which forces saltwater through a semipermiable membrane (a filter) to get rid of large salt molecules. This method is expensive but could be used on a larger scale helping a country sustain its fresh water for drinking.
You could even learn how to desalinate water yourself. Put a bowl of water in a hole, cover the hole with plastic sheet by using some stones. The evaporation of water will begin and the next day the water is drinkable.